Milk for Mammals
Milk is the sole source of nutrition for young mammals up until weaning. The composition of milk is very different for each species, depending on the different physiological requirements of the growing young. Click on the links below for our range of species-specific milk replacers, each based on the composition of the natural mother's milk.
Deer Milk Replacer
Wombaroo Deer Milk Replacer is a nutritionally balanced milk substitute for all deer species. Use for orphaned fawns or when mother’s milk is limited.
- Specifically formulated to match the composition of deer milk, based on published data from a range of species including fallow, red deer & chital.
- Elevated Fat Content – to supply the high energy requirements of fawns.
- Low feed volumes and reduced lactose content to minimise digestive upset.
- Elevated copper levels to minimise potential developmental problems associated with copper deficiency.
Whole milk solids, casein, whey protein, vegetable oils, omega-3 & 6 fatty acids (including EPA & DHA), vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B12, C, D3, E, K, biotin, choline, inositol, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, copper, iodine, selenium.
Solids when reconstituted 250g/Litre Protein 28% Fat 45% Carbohydrate 18% Ash 5% Copper (Cu2+) 1.2mg/Litre Metabolisable Energy (ME) 6200kJ/Litre
2kg, 5kg, 10kg & 20kg.
Success in hand-rearing fawns greatly improves if they receive colostrum at birth. Fawns that don’t get colostrum from the mother can be fed Impact Colostrum Supplement. Commence feeding Wombaroo Deer Milk Replacer after the initial feeds of colostrum.
Making up Milk
To make 1 litre of milk: Mix 250g of powder to 800mL of warm water.
Add about half of the water first and mix to a paste. Then make up with remaining water and mix thoroughly. Water is preboiled to ensure it is sterilised. If the water is too hot it can cause the milk to curdle. If it is too cold then it will be difficult to disperse the powder. Wombaroo contains elevated fat levels, so the milk needs to be well mixed to prevent it from separating out. An electric whisk can be used for mixing. Milk can be stored in the fridge for up to a day or can be frozen for up to 2 weeks.
Warm milk to about 30°C. Feed from a bottle with teat with a Wombaroo D Teat recommended. This teat attaches well to a standard soft drink bottle. Wombaroo Deer Milk is high in energy content which allows for low feed volumes and relatively infrequent feeding intervals. This mimics the natural situation with mother-reared fawns. Young fawns should be fed 4 times per day for the first week. By the second week the feeding frequency may be reduced to 3 times a day, and then down to twice a days for fawns that are maintaining consistent weight gains. To avoid dehydration during hot weather, offer drinks of water between feeds. Always have clean drinking water available. Consult a veterinarian or experienced breeder for particular advice about fawn husbandry.
Different species of deer have different growth rates, as indicated in the table below:
SpeciesBirth Weight (kg)Weight Gain (g/day)Weaning Weight (kg) Fallow4150-20018-22 Red8300-50035-50 Rusa5200-30024-30 Sambar6250-50028-50 Chital3150-25018-25
Where possible, weigh fawns regularly to verify weight gains and determine the volume of milk to feed. Overfeeding milk can cause diarrhoea so feed the suggested volumes in the feeding guidelines.
Depending on species, fawns may be weaned by about 3 months of age. Fawns should be offered high quality, digestible creep feed and hay from 4 weeks of age. This starts the development of microbial digestion in the stomach, and the weaning process on to solid foods. Once they start to eat sufficient quantity of solid food, reduce the milk intake and increase the solids until they are fully weaned.
1.0 100 4.0 300 8.0 500 18 1000 1.5 140 4.5 330 9.0 550 20 1100 2.0 170 5.0 350 10 600 24 1250 2.5 200 5.5 360 12 700 28 1400 3.0 240 6.0 400 14 800 32 1600 3.5 270 7.0 450 16 900 36 1700
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